Category Archives: Benchmark

Let it breathe (part 3): Frequency Response

      Benchmark, Electronics, Op Amp, Pickups, Six-pack

This is part 3 of the “Let it breathe” series. For proper context, you might want to check out Part1 and Part2. This third and last part of the series concludes with actual frequency response measurements for various coil configurations of the Hexaphonic Pickup Project and with the Fender Stratocaster middle pickup as benchmark to compare against. In addition to standard windings with 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 turns AWG 42, we also tested bifilar windings (see Alternative Ideas) with 500 and 1000 turns AWG 42. Like before, the low-power LME49726 OP Amp is used in the differential preamp stage with a gain of 5.

Continue reading

Let it breathe (part 2): More Frequency Analysis

      Benchmark, Electronics, Pickups, Six-pack

Last time we did some (very rough) preliminary tests comparing an early version of the hex pickup with a Fender Stratocaster and a Gibson Les Paul.  The initial test was done using a 2000 turns AWG 42 coil and the cheapo TL072 Op Amp in differential configuration. The goal basically was to see the frequency spectrum of lower impedance coils side by side with that of the single-coil Strat and Les Paul humbucker pickups. Here we will continue with the tests, this time focusing only on the Hex pickup installed on a Strat while continually improving on various aspects of the pickup design.

Continue reading

Let it breathe: Frequency Analysis

      Benchmark, Electronics, Op Amp, Pickups, Six-pack

The following FFT graphs show the harmonic spectrum of a couple of wave samples taken from:

  1. A Fender Stratocaster with the middle pickup
  2. A Gibson Les Paul Studio with both pickups on
  3. The same Strat with the hex pickup between the middle and bridge pickups
  4. The same Les Paul with the hex pickup in the middle

The samples were taken from a high impedance audio input port direct to Logic Pro. The samples were recorded raw (no EQ, no effects). All samples are normalized. Currently, I sampled only the E string. I like the heavy E string with rich harmonics. For fun, I also added the FFT graph of a Bösendorfer from the stock Logic Pro sample collection.

Note: This is the initial test and is continually being updated. See Let it breathe (part 2): More Frequency Analysis and Let it breathe (part 3): Frequency Response for latter installments.

test-lpThe test pickup in this experiment has 2000 turns AWG 42 magnet wire with about 260 ohms D.C. resistance. The differential Op Amp has a gain of 5 and generates a peak-to-peak voltage of around 2 volts (moderate pick attack). For this early prototype, I am using the plain TL072 Op Amp. Already, I am quite pleased with the very low noise even without any shielding at all (image at right). Next time, I’ll have some more graphs comparing the noise floor of the hex pickup compared to the passive humbucker and the very noisy single coil pickup. I also intend to experiment with better Op Amps and even lower impedance coils. This initial analysis will serve as a good benchmark for comparison.

The 60 Hz hum and its harmonics is quite evident in the Stratocaster spectrum. Interestingly, the same 60 Hz (and 120 Hz) shows up as a smaller bump in the Les Paul graph. The so-called humbuckers do not fully cancel hum due to the irregularities in the construction of both coils. It is impossible to manufacture perfectly matched coils. Any irregularity in construction will degrade the common mode rejection of the humbucker. Differential amplifiers have better common mode rejection and are easily balanced by using matched resistors with 1% or even 0.1% tolerance.

As can be seen in the graphs, the lower impedance test pickup is very rich in harmonics. It has a lot more harmonic content than even the bright, but very noisy Stratocaster pickup. The difference in harmonic content between a 24¾” scale Les Paul and a 25½ scale Stratocaster is also quite pronounced, even when using the same test pickup on both. Most of the higher frequencies in the FFT graph of the Stratocaster is just the noise from electromagnetic interference.

Obviously, all guitar samples here don’t come quite close to the rich harmonic content of the Bösendorfer with its long and heavy hammered strings. But so far, I like the tone and clarity of the hex pickup. Leo Pedersen, at comments: “Nice sparkly clean sounds”. I like that characterization 🙂


Fender Stratocaster


Gibson Les Paul Studio

Hex on Stratocaster

Hex on Stratocaster


Hex on Les Paul


Bösendorfer Grand Piano